Agencies of Socialisation
All the agencies and institutions which imparts norms and rules in persons and contribute towards its socialisation is called agencies of socialisation eg family, school, peer groups etc.
There are various traditional Hindu rites or samskaras which divide childhood into severa stages. These are namakarana, nishakarmana, annaprasana, chudakarana or tonsure, vidyarambha and upanayana. Moreover, traditionally the division of an individual's life into four stages, namely, brahmacharya, grihasthashrama, vanaprastha and sanyasa are a direct reflection of the socialisation of a Hindu male.
Religion and Socialisation
Religion also affects the persons socialisation in many ways such as the dress up, language, customs, traditions even the attitudes and behaviour.
Other Institutions: The Ghotul
Ghotul for the Murias is the centre of social and religious life. It also assigns educational tasks among children. All unmarried Muria boys and girls from the age of five or six years are members of ghotul. They sleep at night in the ghotul and are directly reponsible for its care and maintenance. During the day, they go to their parents' home and help them in various tasks. They leave the ghotul after
The membership of ghotul is carefully organised. After a period of testing, boys and girls are initiated and given a special title which carries graded rank and social duty Leaders are appointed to organise and discipline the society. The boys' leader is Sirdar and the girl's Belosa. Boy members are known as Chelik and girl members as Motiari. The relations behveen Chelik and Motiari are governed by the customary rules and regulation of ghotul to which they belong. Indeed, ghotul teaches discipline and introduces the feeling of fraternity and friendship among its members.
Socialisation and Communication
Basil Bernstein. According to him, patterns of language-use and the teaching styles are class-based. He saw a relationship between social structure, forms of speech and the subsequent regulation of behaviour in the schools. For instance, he argued that children from different social classes respond differently to educational opportunities and an important determinant of their response to the school's cognitive aims and teacher's style etc., is the language or linguistic code of the child. He also argued that
different social structures produce different types of speech systems. As the child learns his speech, he learns the requirements of his social structure, which vary according to social class. Therefore, the language of the working-class child is limited in vocabulary while that of the middle-class child does not suffer from this limitation. The teacher is, by and large, from the middle class and can communicate better with the middle-class child since they share the same linguistic code or language with its vocabulary, meanings, syntax etc. Thus, the working class child cannot communicate as well with the teacher and begins with a handicap which affects him or her throughout hislher school career because of this restricted co-operation.
Mass Media and Socialisation
In contemporary societies, the means of mass communication such as the books radio, newspapers, films or cinema, records, and video are very potent sources of socialising those who are either their readers or the listeners or the viewers. These mass media, especially the films, the radio and the television simultaneously communicate the same message to a nation wide audience cutting across all boundaries. Therefore, its impact on socialisation is crucial. Here wt are concerned basically with the message that is conveyed, the images that are projected because they form the content of the socialisation process through the mass media and the impact of the message and the images. Thus, for example, the specific questions in the context of gender and socialisation will be: What are the images of men and women portrayed on the mass media especially on the television? In the context ofthe rural population we may ask: What are the images of the rural folk and is the message relevant for the villagers? Is their image really representative of their experience and if that is so, which part of village India does it represent? Or, what is the impact of violence in films on the children? Similar questions can be asked with reference to all the dimensions that cut across Indian